Dog Parvo Treatment Maricopa AZ
Canine Parvo Virus Symptoms:
If your dog has parvo you may notice the following symptoms: inappetence, vomiting, diarrhea, depression, dehydration, and weight loss. Severe disease results in sepsis, endotoxemia, DIC, seizures, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and death. Severe bone marrow suppression, hypoglycemia, and lymphoid depletion are common.
This disease is very common in younger dogs and puppies between 12 weeks and 6 years of age. This virus is much more likely to affect dogs that have not had the parvo vaccine (dhp-pv), and dogs that did not have the proper number of booster vaccinations as puppies. It is very important that a dog’s final vaccine is given after 16 weeks of age to help stimulate their immune system. Parvo is more common when vaccines were given from a non-veterinarian source (feed store, online pharmacy, shelter), since many times these vaccines are improperly stored and administered. Many veterinarians have a guarantee from the manufacturer that will help cover the cost of treating parvo if the vaccines were properly administered.
In Maricopa, Arizona the typical season for parvovirus is in the spring and fall. At this time of the year the temperatures are milder and it is easier for the virus to spread. Due to the warm temperatures in the Phoenix metro area this virus can be seen throughout the year.
The virus is stable in the environment but may be destroyed by a 1:30 bleach solution. Vaccinating does not produce an immediate immunity (generally 2-3 weeks), so susceptible puppies should be kept isolated. After a dog has parvo, another un-vaccinated dog should not be introduced into that environment for at least 30 days after recovery. Recovery is typically complete. Immunity is long-term and may be life-long.
Vaccination has been effective at drastically reducing the disease. Modified live (high-titer) vaccines are recommended to minimize interference from maternal antibodies. Interference from maternal antibodies is the main reason for vaccine failure. Some pups may have maternal antibodies up to 18 weeks. At Scottsdale Veterinary Clinic our protocol recommends vaccinating at 8, 12, and past 16 weeks. High-risk breeds may require longer initial protocol, extending up to 22 weeks. We generally recommend a yearly booster of this vaccine (dhp-pv) in dogs.
Maricopa Canine Parvo Virus has a fecal-oral route of infection, and the virus can survive in the environment for an extended period of time (30 days). Lymphoid proliferation within tonsils, mesenteric lymph nodes, and other lymphoid tissue follows. Viremia is seen by day 3–5 post-infection and generally precedes clinical signs. Fecal shedding is typically not longer than 10 days after resolution of illness. The incubation period is 2–14 days. CPV targets the crypt cells of the distal duodenum initially, then extends to the jejunum, but can affect entire GI tract. Clinical signs generally manifest by days 6–10 post infection. Affected animals may have concurrent leukopenia and neutropenia. A myocardial form of CPV is rarely seen. This virus is due to in utero or neonatal infection with CPV-2 and typically causes acute death. Severe cases develop sepsis and endotoxemia from gram negative enteric bacteria. The cytokine response seen in parvovirus is equivalent to that seen with sepsis. Sepsis causes circulatory collapse, multi-organ failure, and death. Parvo can affect each of the body’s systems as follows:
- Cardiovascular—myocarditis causing sudden death
- Nervous—mental depression, coma due to hypoglycemia, shock, intracranial hemorrhage. There is no evidence that CPV infects neurons in dogs, nor causes long term neurological impairment.
- Hepatobiliary—icterus; elevated liver enzymes from cholestasis; endotoxemia
- Renal/urologic—pre-renal azotemia; renal azotemia due to multi-organ failure
- Respiratory—ARDS in severe cases
Other diseases that look or act like parvo in dogs, presenting with similar symptoms:
Foreign body, toxin ingestion, dietary indiscretion, pancreatitis, gastrointestinal parasitism (hookworm, Cryptosporidia, Giardia, Tapeworms, and Roundworms), Clostridium perfringens infection, Campylobacter infection, Coronavirus, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, hypoglycemia, and intussusception.